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What is personalized medicine?
As medical research advances, doctors and scientists are beginning to find that the traditional “one-size fits all” model of treatment is inadequate to meet modern medical needs. Many studies have now shown a relationship between variations in drug processing genes and ineffective medication and adverse side effects. Technological advances decreasing the cost of genetic sequencing have now made it possible to identify these genetic variations on an individual basis, and physicians can now use this data to tailor prescriptions to optimize treatment.
How genetic variations affect your medication response
There are two groups of specialized proteins in your body are responsible for absorbing, distributing and excreting drugs from your body. The first group are drug metabolism proteins, called cytochromes P450, which are primarily responsible for breaking up toxins and drug molecules. The other group of proteins are the drug transporters, which are primarily responsible for drug absorption into your body and excretion out of your body.
All proteins can be traced back to a specific gene, and variations in these genes affects protein function. Changes in drug metabolism or drug transporter protein function can affect how effective medications are for you, and how severe the side effects could be.
Geneyouin's PillCheck™ Test Covers Most Common Medications
Our genetic test identifies variations in genes related to most commonly used medications. Click on the tabs below to learn about how PillCheckTM can help with the most commonly prescribed medications, or check out the full list of medications we cover.
Click here to see the full list of medications PillCheckTM covers
Treatments with painkillers are often ineffective and associated with adverse side effects. Commonly used painkillers generally belong to two main groups:
NSAIDS – Painkillers such as aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and celecoxib, are part of a group of drugs known as the Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs are effective only for some people, while others find them ineffective. Decreased pain management effectiveness and increased risk of adverse side effects are higher in people with reduced activity of specific liver enzymes, which can be linked to certain genetic mutations.
Opioids – People who take opioid medications like codeine can also experience varying effectiveness and side effects. Codeine is a component of Tylenol 3 and many cough remedies, and it is processed into morphine in the body by liver enzymes. If the enzyme is too active and the conversion occurs too rapidly, it may cause side effects ranging from minor constipation, dizziness and drowsiness to fatal breath suppression in children and adults. In contrast, patients who carry liver enzymes that are inefficient at converting codeine to morphine do not experience effective pain relief.
14-30% of patients prescribed clopidogrel (Plavix), an anti-platelet agent used to reduce the risk of blood clots, remain at risk of heart disease or stroke because they cannot metabolize the drug into its active from. Aspirin is another anti-platelet agent with an effect similar to clopidogrel. However, 7.5 million North Americans cannot adequately metabolize aspirin, and remain at risk of cardiovascular conditions.
Many patients also take a class of drugs called statins, which are generally used to help decrease cholesterol levels. Inappropriate doses of statins can result in muscle pain that in rare cases can lead to kidney failure. A genetic test can help you to find whether you are at risk of statin side effects.
GeneYouIn’s PillCheckTM test can identify the genetic variations that determine how well your body metabolizes these and other cardiovascular drugs to help your doctor optimize your dosage.
Drug treatments for mental health are often ineffective and associated with adverse side effects. Less than 1/3 of patients prescribed antidepressants respond to the first-line of treatment – others try out a medication for several weeks with their symptoms worsening before they can switch to another drug.
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Personalized medicine is here,
and it begins with a genetic test from GeneYouIn
Genetic testing is the first step in personalized healthcare. Let us know what your specific healthcare concerns are so we can tailor our test to your needs.
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